I will present state-of-the-art techniques for
simulating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures on modern supercomputers.
This includes techniques for following the gravitational collapse
of structures, the hydrodynamics and a variety of star formation
and feedback physics. In addition, there will be practical
examples, i.e. simulations that can be performed and analyzed by
the participants on their own laptop computers.

Topics that will be covered:

- Motivation for simulations & Semi-Analytic models
- Initial conditions for simulations
- Gravity algorithms & parallelization
- Hydrodynamics schemes (adaptive mesh refinement, moving-mesh, smoothed particle hydrodynamics)
- Following radiative cooling & photoheating
- Subresolution physics (star formation, supernova & AGN feedback)
- Semi-Analytic models
- How to use the Gadget2 code (examples: cosmological box, galaxy collision)

**Lecture 1** (Apr 11)

topics:

- Introduction to cosmological simulations and semi-analytic models
- Historical overview

No Exercise Sheet

**Lecture 2** (Apr 18)

topics:

- The observed Universe
- Basics of Cosmology
- The inhomogeneous Universe

**Lecture 3** (Apr 18)

topics:

- Creating initial conditions
- The Zel'dovich Approximation
- Creating disc galaxies

Notes

Exercise Sheet 1 (due May 2)

**Lecture 4** (May 2)

topics:

- Colissionless systems and softening
- N-body algorithms
- Particle-Mesh and Tree

Exercise Sheet 2 (due May 9)

**Lecture 5** (May 9)

topics:

- Comoving equations of Motion
- Time integration
- Drift-Kick-Drift and leapfrog schemes
- Parallelization

Notes

Exercise Sheet 3 (due May 16)

**Lecture 6** (May 16)

topics:

- The Euler equations
- Advection methods for grids
- Riemann solvers
- Adaptive mesh refinement and moving meshes

Notes

**Lecture 7** (May 23)

topics:

- Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
- SPH equations of motion from Lagrangian
- Pressure-Entropy SPH
- Other meshless methods

Notes

**Lecture 8** (May 30)

topics:

- Cooling processes
- Chemical Network
- Ionization Equilibrium
- Cold streams

Notes

Exercise Sheet 4 (due June 6)

**Lecture 9** (June 6)

topics:

- Subresolution physics
- Star formation
- Supernova feedback: multiphase and blastwave models
- AGN feedback

Exercise Sheet 5 (due June 13/20)

**Lecture 10** (June 13)

topics:

- Halofinding
- Methods: Friends of Friends, Density peak finders
- Examples: BDM, SKID, AHF, SUBFIND, ROCKSTAR
- Mock observations

**The Gadget-2 code**

In the second half of the course we will do some exercises with
the Gadget-2 cosmological simulation code. It can be downloaded
here: