Universitäts-Sternwarte München / Observatorium Wendelstein|
Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München, Deutschland
Telefon +49-89-2180-6001 · Telefax +49-89-2180-6003 ·
Wendelsteingipfel, D-83735 Bayrischzell, Deutschland
Telefon +49-8023-8198-0 · Telefax +49-8023-8198-29 ·
The Wendelstein Observatory
The Wendelstein Observatory is situated on the summit of Mount
Wendelstein, a prominent, 1838 m high mountain in the bavarian Alps.
It is operated by the University Observatory of the University of Munich.
Wendelstein Observatory in 2001
University Observatory Munich
Telephone +49 8023 8198 0
Fax +49 8023 8198 29
||47° 42′ 13.1″ North
||12° 00′ 43.4″ East
Only 75 km south-east of Munich, after one hour's drive this site can
easily be reached via cable car (8 min) or by means of a cog rail road
(25 min.). Final access (personal only) to the very top is achieved by an elevator
climbing up 109 m within the mountain. The observatory was first installed
to survey the solar activity. In the mid-1980, it was redirected to night observations
of stars and galaxies, but it still owns a 20 cm Zeiss solar coronograph.
Nowadays, the coronograph is used only for eduction and public outreach.
For the night time activity, a 80 cm DFM-telescope was installed which was
operated until spring 2008 for scientific observing
programs every clear night. It was equipped with high-tech focal
instruments like high-speed multichannel photometers or a direct
imaging CCD-Camera. This instrumentation has often been involved
in international observing programs. In 2007, a 40 cm telescope
was installed for the students lab.
The main scientific facility is a 2 m Fraunhofer telescope installed in 2011
which replace the 80 cm telecope and is installed at the old site of the 80 cm telescope.
The telescope will be finally equipped with four instruments, an optical wide field imager,
a theree channel (optical to NIR) imager, a high resolution echelle spectrograph, and
a field spectrograph for kinematical studies. The cameras are operational at the telescope,
the echelle spectrograph will be installed in summer 2016.
Telescope and Instrumentation:
2.0m Fraunhofer Telescope
Since September 2011, the new telescope is installed at the observatory. It saw first light on Dec 19, 2011.
Regular use of the telescope started Nov 13, 2013. The telecope was build by
Kayser-Threde GmbH (München) and
Astelco System GmbH (Martinsried). It is installed in a 8.5 m diameter dome build by
Baader Planetarium (Mammendorf)
The three large mirrors of the telecope were produced by
Lytkarino Opical Glass Factory (LZOS, Moskau).
The telescope is of the Ritchey-Chrétien type with a free aperture of 2.0 meter
and focal ratio of f/7.8. The light is redirected through a tunable and plane third mirror
it one of the two Nasmyth-focal stations. At both stations, instruments with up to 350 kg and a field-of-view up
to 0.7 degree can be installed (right now, only one station has a 3-lens corrector system).
One station is equipped with a wide field imager CCD camera. The other station
housees an optical-NIR CCD camera (smaller f.o.v., three camera expose simultaneously). A fiber connections will allow to connect two spectrographs, installed
outside the dome in the observatory building (under construction).
Telescope operation can be done locally or by remote control.
The scientific instruments are all developed and build by the Universitätssternwarte München:
- WWFI (in operation since July 2013),
- 3KK (in operation since January 2016),
- VIRUS-W (on loan to the McDonald 2.7m telescope since 2010),
- FOCES (installing).
Wendelstein 2 m Fraunhofer Telescope built by Kayser-Threde (München)
and Astelco (Martinsried), shown with its wide field CCD camera (left) and the still open 3kk system (right).
The wide field camera (WWFI) allows images up to an size of
0.5 degree (full moon diameter). Right now, first science programs have started while a major
focus is still the testing of all telescope modes. The camera is based on a mosaic of 4 CCDs \ (each 4048 × 4048 pixels) from the company e2v,
which have been put into a computer controlled detector system by
Spectral Instruments (Tucson). Up to 14 filters can be
installed (so far u', g', r', i'), and a so-called Bonn shutter is in use in front of the detectors.
Image of the spiral galaxy NGC 891 (Andromeda), taken with the Wendelstein 2 m Fraunhofer teleskoce and its WWFI camera.
The images was put together from individual exposures in filters u′, g′, and r′
the combination corresponds to the impression of the human eye. NGC 891 is similar to our own Milky Way host galaxy,
but seen edge-on. It has a distance of about 30 million light years.
Exposure of bipolar nebula S106 - a hot star seen through a dust disk. Exposure with the infrared camera at the
Wendelstein 2 m Fraunhofer Telescope, 600 Sec. in each filter (J = blue, H = green, and Ks = red in the pseude-solor image shown).
A three channel camera (two optical CCDs and one infrare Hawaii2R detecotor system) are still under final
construction. An echelle spectrograph for high resolution spectra is under tests in the Munich labs
while the field spectrograph VIRUSW for medium resolution is on loan at the 2.7m telescope of the
McDonald Observatory (Texas) producing already scientific data.
The new telescope is a corner stone for the observational science projects of the
Universitäts-Sternwarte München, especially for the projects within the
Clusters of the German Exzellenzinitiative “Origin and Structure of the
Universe”. Further, the Munich programs using our parts of the observing time of
9m Hobby-Eberly Telescope in Texas
will be supported through coordinated observations. More information about telescope and instruments
can be found in a couple of publications.
Towards the end of the years 2013, 2014 and 2015, the archive of the WWFI images was screened for
nice-looking observations which allowed to produce so-called true-color images. 2013, we selected
our neighbor spiral galaxy M33 (left). 2014, a deep image of the Perseus galaxy cluster was
produced (middle left).
In 2015, the Galaxies M65 and M66, members of a nearby small group of galaxies, were the targets (middle right).
For the 2016 poster, we selected images taken to monitor variable sources within the famous Orion nebula M42 (right).
Technically, the procedure was the same as described above for NGC 891. Here, all three images
cover about 0.5 degree along the side (about the diameter of the full moon), that's the size
of one camera field of view.
40 cm telescope
A CDK-17 Planewave telecope was installed in 2016 inside a Baader 3.2m dome.
This corrected Dall-Kirkham astrograph telescope offers a free aperture of 43 cm (field of view 70 mm).
The f/6.8 systems yields a pixel scale of
The telescope is equipped with a SBIG (STX-16803)
CCD camera. The filter wheel contains SDSS as well as
some anrrow band filters.
A fiber link connects to a small low-to-medium
resolution Cassegrain spectrograph originally build for the old 80 cm
telescope by DFM. This spectrograph is only used for the students lab.
The telescope is be used for the student lab, to monitor delta Cep variable stars in the Milky Way, and as an extinction monitoring supporting
the 2 m telescope.
|Nighttime picture of the Wendelstein 40 cm Planewave Teleskop while the open dome was rotating (M. Kluge)
|| 3 x 7 minutes exposure in B, g, und rof the Orion nebula M42 combined to a so-called true-color image.
Data taken with the freshly installed telescope and CCD camera while testing the system.
20 cm Coronograph
A special 20 cm refracor, built by Zeiss-Oberkochen, was used until 1988
to observe the activity of the sun in white
light, Halpha, and by spectra. The telescope allows to place
special light stops (the so-called coronographic design which
produces artificial solar eclipses) allowing to observe the solar
atmosphere under excellent atmospheric conditions. The telescope
is used for public outreach and student eduction.
Solar activity data taken at Wendelstein have been digitzed for the years
1947 und 1982 and are available from the
Solar Data Services of the National Geophysical Data Center
20 cm Coronograph (middle) and historic photographic records of active solar protuberance.
CCD (Basler UK-1151) exposures with a Baader-H-alpha filter at the 20 cm coronograph.
Left: Big sun spot group as observed 27.10.2014.
Middle: Small sun spot as observed near the solar rim 11.6.2014.
Left: Protuberances and solar spot 22.6.2014.
Observing Programs (recent examples)
- 2m-telecope and WWFI or 3kk
- coma structure of comets 41P and 67P
- transits of exo-planets
- variable sources including gravitaional lensing events in the Andromeda- and Triangulum galaxies (M31, M33)
- strukture of the brightest galaxies in clusters of galaxies
- weak lensing studies of cluster of galaxies detected by the Planck sattelite
- 40cm-telescope and SBIG CCD camera or PSPEC
- extinktion monitor
- Delta-Cep stars of the Milky Way
- variable red giant monitoring in galactic globular clusters
- students’ lab
- Observational and instrumental lab at Wendelstein:
In all modes of observations, students have the chance to
participate and get trained in modern observing and instrument
development. Up to now, a total of 59 diploma/master/bachelor theses and PhD works has been done at
the observatory since 1989 (until start of 2014). Furthermore, a large number of publications has been based on data
collected partly or totally at the observatory. The participation in
international campaigns has been requested quite often supporting
parallel observing with sattelite telescopes or world wide nets of
ground based facilities. Guest observers from USA, Sweden,
Argentina, and China have made use of the telescope.